AGRICULTURE (Medium - English)
PAPER ‐ I (subject code 1009)
- Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical
and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro ecology; cropping pattern as
indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans.
Climate change—International conventions and global initiatives. Green house effect and global warming.
Advance tools for ecosystem analysis—Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
- Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and shortduration
varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping, and farming systems. Organic
and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar,
commercial and fodder crops.
- Important features, and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agroforestry,
and natural forests : Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agro-forestry and value addition.
Conservation of forest flora and fauna.
- Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications;
cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds.
- Soil—physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of
India. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant
nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertiliser
recommendations, integrated nutrient management Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use
efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorus and potassium use. Problem
soils and their reclamation. Soil factors affecting green house gas emission.
- Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dry land
agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilising agriculture production in rainfed areas.
- Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of
reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of
water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.
Irrigation projects in India.
- Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and
budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing management strategies for
development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural
economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.
- Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socioeconomic
survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers; Training
programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in dissemination of Agricultural
technologies. Non-Government Organisation (NGO) and self-help group approach for rural development.
PAPER‐II (subject code 1010)
- Cell structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure and function of genetic material. Laws of
heredity. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in
recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids. Mutation—and their role in crop improvement.
Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic
inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.
- History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution and
domestication of crop plants, center of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources—conservation
and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants. Molecular markers and
their application in plant improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Heterosis and its exploitation. Somatic hybridization. Breeding for
disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering
and biotechnology in crop improvement Genetically modified crop plants.
- Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, Seed testing and storage. DNA finger
printing and seed registration. Role of public and private sectors in seed production, and marketing. Intellectual
Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture.
- Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism
of nutrients. Soil-water-plant relationship.
- Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis—modern concepts and factors affecting the process,
aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3, C4 and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Plant growth substances and their role in crop
production. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Stress physiology—draught, salt and
- Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. Package practices of major
horticultural crops. Protected cultivation and high tech horticulture. Post-harvest technology and value addition
of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic plants. Role of
fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.
- Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their
economic importance. Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and diseases
management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases. Epidemiology and
forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides, their formulation and
modes of action.
- Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population—vision 2020.
Reasons for grain surplus. National and International food policies. Production, procurement, distribution
constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution
System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy
implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food production to National
Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Food based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger. Nutrient
deficiency—Micro nutrient deficiency: Protein Energy Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or
PCM), Micro nutrient deficiency and HRD in context of work capacity of women and children. Food grain
productivity and food security.