BOTANY (Medium – English)
PAPER‐I (subject code 1015)
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology :
Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma;
Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water
pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria,
mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection
and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.
2. Cryptograms :
Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary
viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.
3. Phanerogams :
Gymnosperms : Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of gymnosperms.
Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction.
General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of
fossils and their study techniques.
Angiosperms : Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.
Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy and
chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.
Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification
of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae,
Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae,
Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae,
Musaceae and Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth;
Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—its
development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony, apomixes;
Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube
4.Plant Resource Development :
Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin.
Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides,
timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of
Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
5. Morphogenesis :
Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture.
Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen
haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.
PAPER‐II (subject code 1016)
1. Cell Biology :
Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and ultrastructural
details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion,
membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts,
mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes,lysosomes, peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton and
microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction Mitosis and meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical
and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and
packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes—structure, behaviour and
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution :
Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics
and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and
crossing over of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping, function); Sex
chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance; sex determination and molecular basis of sex
differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and
cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene
expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and
Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics :
Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass
selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes
in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic
crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and
techniques—probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard deviation and
coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability
and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson).
Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry :
Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis—
photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM
pathways; Mechanism of pholem transport, Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including
fermentation)—electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration;
Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen
metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of
secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant
movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their
chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; growth indices, growth movements. Stress
physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and
germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography :
Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant
succession. Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including
phytoreme-diation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests, afforestation,
deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data Books;
Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention of Biological Diversity,
Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development;
Biogeochemical cycles. Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmetal Impact
Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.