History

History
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How to study History Optional?

History is a perfect combination of humanities and sciences. It comprises not only facts but also their analysis based on scientific evidences and records. Therefore this optional helps one develop analytical abilities and further sharpen answer writing skills. Also, 40% of the Optional History syllabus is common with the General Studies syllabus (both Prelims and Mains) in the form of World History, Modern Indian History and Indian Culture.

How to prepare?

First and most important thing is to select 2 or 3 books as must read reference books and study them thoroughly. Use other books and material as supplementary resources to complement your study and/or to specifically cover syllabus pointers.
Next is notes making, very helpful in History optional because it not only helps sharpen your study with precision but also helps in quick and necessary revision. This further boosts your confidence to face the exam.
Mapping is an important exercise that needs to be done religiously. Find a way (eg. Grid method) that suits you and explore it as much as you can with regular practise.
Last is answer writing. The more you practise the better. As History is a static subject topics keep getting repeated, though not in the very same form. Practising with last 10 years UPSC question papers is highly recommended as well as beneficial.

How to write answers?

This is the single most important aspect from the Mains perspective. Scoring sufficiently well in Optionals is one of the sure shot ways to secure a good rank in this exam. Therefore the significance of answer writing cannot be done away with.
To begin with, know your syllabus thoroughly. Then work on developing an analytical perspective and simultaneously sharpening your factual base. Remember that both facts and analysis are equally important and need to go hand in hand.
Once the framework is built, work on having a strong hold on one section from each paper. This strategy helps in attempting questions wisely.
Read the question thoroughly, dissect it into relevant parts, understand what is asked and then decide what to write in the answer.
Before writing, have a rough structure of the answer ready in your mind such that your answer is just an elaboration of this structure.
Start with Introduction and cover all the parts of the question in the main body. Do not forget to give balanced viewpoints with substantial arguments. Also, try to cover as many perspectives and angles relevant to the question. Give examples and quote sources wherever you can.
Make use of timelines, historical charts, etc to further substantiate your answers.

List of reference books:

The following list is only indicative and not exhaustive-
1) Ancient India:
a) Ancient India (NCERT) by R. S. Sharma
b) IGNOU BA material for Ancient Indian History
c) A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India by Upinder Singh
2) Medieval India:
a) Medieval India (NCERT) by Satish Chandra
b) IGNOU BA material for Medieval Indian History
c) A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India by Upinder Singh
d) Medieval Indian Society and Culture: Volume 3 by J. L. Mehta
3) Modern India:
a) Modern India (NCERT) by Bipan Chandra
b) Politics in India since Independence (NCERT)
c) India’s struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra
d) India since Independence by Bipan Chandra
e) From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India by Sekhar Bandopadhyay
4) World History:
a) The Story of Civilization (NCERT) by Arjun Deo
b) A History of the Modern World by Ranjan Chakrabarti
c) A Study of Modern Europe and World: Volume 3 by L. Mukherjee
5) Mapping:
a) History & Heritage through Maps, Ensemble
b) Historical Atlas of India, Spectrum
c) A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India by Upinder Singh

UPSC Optional History

Mains Syllabus

1. Sources :
Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments
Literary sources:
Indigenous : Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional
languages, religious literature.
Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (Neolithic and Chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the
later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) :
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. The regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
– Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
– The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
– “Indian Feudalism”
– Agrarian economy and urban settlements
– Trade and commerce
– Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
– Condition of women
– Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
– Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
– Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
– Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
– Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. The Thirteenth Century:
– Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
– Economic, social and cultural consequences
– Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
– Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

16. The Fourteenth Century:
– “The Khalji Revolution”
– Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
– Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, a bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
– Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate,
foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
– Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
– Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, an evolution of a composite culture
– Economy: Agricultural production, a rise of the urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade, and commerce

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:
– Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
– The Vijayanagra Empire
– Lodis
– Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
– The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
– Portuguese Colonial enterprise
– Bhakti and Sufi Movements

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
– Regional cultural specificities
– Literary traditions
– Provincial architecture
– Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
Chanakya Mandal Pariwar / UPSC Comprehensive 2017-18 / 3

20. Akbar:
– Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
– Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
– Rajput policy
– Evolution of religious and social outlook, a theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
– Court patronage of art and technology

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
– Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
– The Empire and the Zamindars
– Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
– Nature of the Mughal State
– Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
– The Ahom Kingdom
– Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
– Population, agricultural production, craft production
– Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution
– Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
– Condition of peasants, condition of women
– Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
– Persian histories and other literature
– Hindi and other religious literature
– Mughal architecture
– Mughal painting
– Provincial architecture and painting
– Classical music
– Science and technology

24. The Eighteenth Century:
– Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
– The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
– Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
– The Maratha fiscal and financial system
– Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
– State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

1. European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the
Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in Colonial India between 1858 and 1935

11. Other strands in the National Movement
The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India.
The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change ; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies
(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics:
(i) European States System.
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
(iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(v) British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization:
(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society
(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System:
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:
(i) South and South-East Asia
(ii) Latin America and South Africa
(iii) Australia
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
(i) 19th Century European revolutions
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22. World Wars:
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences
(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of two power blocs
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:
(i) Latin America-Bolivar
(ii) Arab World-Egypt
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
(i) Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

26. Unification of Europe:
(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World: (i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991