GEOGRAPHY - Chanakya Mandal Pariwar

GEOGRAPHY (Medium – Marathi and English)

PAPER I (subject code 1027)


Physical Geography :

1. Geomorphology :

Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces;
Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the
earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain
building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape
development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development;
Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

2. Climatology :

Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric
circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet
streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of
precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of
world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic
changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3. Oceanography :  

Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and
salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine
resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of
the sea and marine pollution.

4. Biogeography : 

Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion,
Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems
of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool

5. Environmental Geography : 

Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on
ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their
management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation;
Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial
measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography :

1. Perspectives in Human Geography :

Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and
dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural,
human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world;
Human development indix.

2. Economic Geography :

World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources
and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural
regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine:
causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

3. Population and Settlement Geography :

Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic
attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population;
Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life;
Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural
settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size
rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns;
Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4. Regional Planning :

Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth
centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues
in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography :

System analysis in Human geography;
Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and
Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of
industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of
international boundaries and frontiers.

PAPER II (subject code 1028)


1. Physical Setting : 

Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief;
Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall
patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural
vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources :

Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and
wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture :

Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings,
land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop
combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and
ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aquaculture;
Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agroecological

4. Industry :

Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium,
fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial
houses and complexes including public sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial
policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade :

Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works
and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and
foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones; Developments in communication
and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

6. Cultural Setting :

Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities;
religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth,
distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate,
work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international)
and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements : 

Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology
of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions;
Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and

8. Regional Development and Planning :

Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans;
Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning; Command area
development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal
area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects :

Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new
states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues;
Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean

10. Contemporary Issues :

Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis,
floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land
use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population
explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil
erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development;
Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers;
Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to
subjects covered by this paper.