Paper‐4 (250 Marks) : General Studies-1
Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society with some weigh-tage to Maharashtra
- Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
- Bhakti movement and its philosophy with special reference to saints’ movement in Maharashtra.
- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events,
- The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
- Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
- History of the world will include events from the 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars,
redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism,
capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
- Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India
- Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental
issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies
- Effects of globalization on Indian society
- Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism, secularism
- Salient features of the world’s physical geography.
- Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent
factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the
world (including India)
- Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical
features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and
in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.