UPSC BOTANY - Chanakya Mandal Pariwar



1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology :

Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma;
Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution;
Prion and Prion hypothesis.
Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of
infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of
parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins. Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

2. Cryptogams :

Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary
viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.

3. Phanerogams :

Gymnosperms : Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of gymnosperms.
Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction.
General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils
and their study techniques.

Angiosperms : Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.

Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy and
chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.

Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of
angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae,
Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae,
Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and

Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth;
Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—its
development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony, apomixes; Applications of
palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

4. Plant Resource Development :

Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin.
Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides,
timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of
Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5. Morphogenesis :

Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture.
Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen
haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

1. Cell Biology :

Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and ultrastructural details;
Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane
transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria,
ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes,lysosomes, peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton and microtubules;
Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors;
Signal transduction Mitosis and meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural
variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome;
Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes—structure, behaviour and significance.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution :

Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and
multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over
of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked
inheritance; sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and
molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene
expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories.
Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics :

Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass
selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in
plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and
biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques—
probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard deviation and coefficient of
variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions
(normal, binomial and Poisson). Correlation and regression.

4. Physiology and Biochemistry :

Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis—
photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM
pathways; Mechanism of pholem transport, Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)—
electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP
synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy
transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors
(plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization,
senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; growth
indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology.
Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.

5. Ecology and Plant Geography :

Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession.
Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoreme-diation);Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation
and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its
conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual
Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles. Global warming and
climatic change; Invasive species; Environmetal Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.