UPSC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - Chanakya Mandal Pariwar

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

PAPER ‐ I

1. Circuits—Theory :

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh
analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits;
sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port
networks.

2. Signals and Systems :

Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems; LTI systems;
convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and
differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function.
Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

3. E.M. Theory :

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and
refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith
chart.

4. Analog Electronics :

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET.
Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror;
Amplifiers : single and multi-stage, differential, operational feedback and power. Analysis of
amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for
oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits.
Linear and switching power supplies.

5. Digital Electronics :

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL,
MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.
Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers,
multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic
implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

6. Energy Conversion :

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC
machines : characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers :
principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction
machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and performance analysis; speed control.

7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives :

Semi-conductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static
characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters :
fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters;
Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variablespeed drives.

8. Analog Communication :

Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages;
probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal
transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSBSC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals;
narrows band FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation
system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked
loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation or AM and FM receivers.

PAPER‐II

1. Control Systems :

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems;
principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems : time-domain and
transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polor plots,
Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable
representation and analysis of control systems.

2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers :

PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register settiming diagram, programming, interrupts,
memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

3. Measurement and Instrumentation :

Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance,
inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic
measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrumanalyser, distoration-meter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric
crystal.

4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control :

Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and
reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices;
load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components,
analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability : swing curves and equal
area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.

5. Power System Protection :

Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit
brakers. Computer aided protection : introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric
relays and application of DSP to protection.

6. Digital Communication :

Pulse code modulation (PCM), defferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM),
Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK,
PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolation codes.
Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.