PAPER ‐ I
(Answers must be written in Hindi)
1. History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi
I. Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
II. Development of Braj and Awadhi as Literary language during medieval period.
III. Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitaya, Rahim etc. and
IV. Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century.
V. Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
VI. Development of Hindi as a National Language during freedom movement.
VII. The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
VIII. Scientific & Technical Development of Hindi Language.
IX. Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter-relationship.
X. Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.
XI. Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.
2. History of Hindi Literature
I. The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi
II. Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.
A : Adikal—Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.
Prominent poets—Chandvardai, Khusaro, Hemchandra, Vidyapati.
B : Bhaktikal—Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.
Prominent Poets—Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.
C : Ritikal—Ritikavya, Ritibaddhkavya & Riti Mukta Kavya. Prominent Poets—Keshav, Bihari,
Padmakar and Ghananand.
D : Adhunik Kal—
a. Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.
b. Prominent Writers—Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
c. Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry: Chhayavad, Pragativad, Prayogvad, Nai Kavita,
Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.
Prominent Poets—Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya,
3. Katha Sahitya
A : Upanyas & Realism
B : The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
C : ProminentNovelists—Premchand, Jain-endra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
D : The origin and development of Hindi short story.
E : Prominent Short Story Writers—Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh & Krishna Sobti.
4. Drama & Theatre
A : The Origin & Development of Hindi Drama.
B : Prominent Dramatists—Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma,
C : The development of Hindi Theatre.
A : The origin and development of Hindi criticism : Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi.
Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.
B : Prominent critics—Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.
6. The other form of Hindi prose—Lalit Nibandh,Rekhachitra, Sansmaran, Yatra-vrittant.
(Answers must be written in Hindi)
The paper will require first-hand reading of the prescribed texts and will test the critical ability of the
1. Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis)
2. Soordas : Bhramar Geetsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
3. Tulsidas : Ramcharit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttarkand)
4. Jayasi : Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog
5. Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
6. Maithili Sharan : Bharat Bharati
7. Prasad : Kamayani (Chinta and Shraddha Sarg)
8. Nirala : Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Pooja & Kukurmutta)
9. Dinkar : Kurukshetra
10. Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Veena)
11. Muktiboth : Brahm Rakhashas
12. Nagarjun : Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.
1. Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha
2. Mohan Rakesh : Ashadh Ka Ek Din
3. Ramchandra : Chintamani (Part I) (KavitaKya Shukla Hai, ShraddhaAurBhakti)
4. Dr. Satyendra : Nibandh Nilaya—Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad
Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
5. Premchand : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit
Rai/Manjusha—Prem Chand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan. Ed. Amrit Rai.
6. Prasad : Skandgupta
7. Yashpal : Divya
8. Phaniswar Nath : Maila Anchal Renu
9. Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
10. Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)